VECFEM3 Reference Manual: vemp02

Type: FORTRAN routine

 GNU-Darwin Web

NAME

vemp02 - solves a nonsteady nonlinear functional equation by mixed finite elements

SYNOPSIS

CALL VEMP02(
T, LU, U, EEST, LIVEM, IVEM, LLVEM, LVEM, LRVEM, RVEM, LNEK, NEK, LRPARM, RPARM, LIPARM, IPARM, LDNOD, DNOD, LRDPRM, RDPARM, LIDPRM, IDPARM, LNODN, NODNUM, LNOD, NOD, LNOPRM, NOPARM, LBIG, RBIG, IBIG, MASKL, MASKF, USERB, USRFUT, USRFU, USERF, VEM50X, VEM63X)
INTEGER
LU, LIVEM, LLVEM, LRVEM, LNEK, LRPARM, LIPARM, LDNOD, LRDPRM, LIDPRM, LNODN, LNOPRM, LBIG
INTEGER
IVEM(LIVEM), NEK(LNEK), IPARM(LIPARM), DNOD(LDNOD), IDPARM(LIDPRM), NODNUM(LNODN), IBIG(*)
DOUBLE PRECISION
T, U(LU), EEST(LU), RVEM(LRVEM), RPARM(LRPARM), RDPARM(LRDPRM), NOD(LDNOD), NOPARM(LNOPRM), RBIG(LBIG)
LOGICAL
EXTERNAL
USERB, USRFUT, USRFU, USERF, VEM50X, VEM63X

PURPOSE

vemp02 is a subroutine for the numerical solution of a nonlinear nonsteady functional equation on a space of smooth functions H. The problem for the solution U: [T0,TEND] -> H has to be given in the formulation:

```
[1] functional equation

for all V in H with V(COMPV)|D(COMPV)=0 for all COMPV=1,..,NK:

F{T,UT,U}(V)=0  for all T0<T<=TEND

[2] Dirichlet conditions

for all COMPU=1,...,NK : U(T)(COMPU)|D(COMPU)=B(T)(COMPU)
for all T0<T<=TEND

[3] Initial Solution

for all COMPU=1,...,NK : U(T0)(COMPU)=U0(COMPU)

```
where F is a linear form depending on the searched solution U, its derivative UT with respect of time T and the time T, see userf. B must not depend on U, see userb. U0 is a given solution in H.

Using the finite element method the linear form is discretized. This transforms the problem to a nonlinear initial value problem. It is solved by difference formulas with self-adapted step size and order control. In every time step the resulting system of nonlinear equations is solved by the Newton-Raphson method. The quality of the computed solution is estimated by an error estimation in space and time direction. In every Newton-Raphson step and for the calculation of the error indicator the program package lsolpp is used.

At the first call of vemp02, U specifies the initial solution U0 and EEST its error (normally =0). You can use vemu08 or vemu06 to define U0. The initial solution is modified by vemp02, so that it fullfils the Dirichlet conditions at T0. Starting from T0, the integration in time direction stops if the current time is greater than the given time mark T. If INTERP is set, the solution is evaluated at T, else the solution is given back at the current time step. The computed solution and error estimator is postprocessed by the routines vemu03, vemu04 and vemu05 and can be handed over to a postprocessor program, see vemide, vempat or vemisv. If at the output STEP=1, vemp02 can be recalled with a new time mark. If at the output STEP=0, TEND is reached and the integration in T-direction ends.

ARGUMENTS

T double precision, scalar, input/output, local
Time mark. If T is reached, vemp02 returns to the calling program. At the output, T gives the current time value at which the solution U is returned. So if INTERP=LVEM(12)=.false., the value of T will be changed.
LU integer, scalar, input, local
Length of solution vector U, LU >=LM.
U double precision, array: U(LU), input/output, local
The solution vector at the global nodes at time T. U(i) is the value at the global node i+PTRMBK(MYPROC), see vemdis. On the first call U defines the values of the initial solution at the initial time T0.
EEST double precision, array: EEST(LU), input/output, local
The vector of the error indicator at the global nodes at time T. EEST(i) is the value at the global node i+PTRMBK(MYPROC), see vemdis. On the first call EEST defines the error of the initial solution at the initial time T0, normally =0. For a mesh adaptation the error indicator can be interpolated to the center point of elements (see vemu03) or to the geometrical nodes (see vemu05). If ERREST is not set, EEST is undefined.
LIVEM integer, scalar, input, local
Length of the integer information vector, LIVEM>= MESH+ NINFO+100+50*NGROUP+ NDNOD+ NK+ LM.
IVEM integer, array: IVEM(LIVEM), input/output, local/global
Integer information vector.
(1)=MESH, input, local
Start address of the mesh informations in IVEM, MESH>203+ NPROC.
(2)=ERR, output, global
Error number.
 0 program terminated without error. 1 program stops, since prescribed CPU time is over. 2 MAXIT is reached. 3 the Newton-Raphson iteration does not converge. 4 the Newton-Raphson correction is too small. 10 error in lsolpp. 80 illegal T. 90 LBIG is too small. 95 L/I/RVEM arrays or solution array is too small. 98 read/write error. 99 fatal error.
(3)=STEP, input/output, global
Recall indicator. At the input it indicates
 0 first call 1 continuation of T-integration 2 restart
and at the output it indicates
 0 TEND is reached. 1 call again to continue T-integration 2 CPU-time reaches JOBEND. Save arrays for restart.
vemp02 offers the possibility to split the computation of the numerical solution into several parts. This may be useful for very difficult problems with a high computational amount per Newton-Raphson step. The iteration stops if SECOND is greater than JOBEND= RVEM(1), where SECOND is a real function in the VECFEM library which gives the running CPU time in seconds. SECOND is checked after every call of lsolpp. So if you want to stop the iteration after RUNTIME CPU seconds, you have to set JOBEND= RVEM(1)= SECOND()+RUNTIME before the call of vemp02. If the current value of SECOND is greater than JOBEND on any processor, vemp02 stops and sets STEP= IVEM(3)=2. Then you have to save the mesh arrays NEK, RPARM, IPARM, DNOD, RDPARM, IDPARM, NODNUM, NOD, NOPARM, the solution array U and the information arrays IVEM, RVEM, LVEM for every individual process (e.g. see vemp02exm10(7)). Before you restart vemp02 you have to read the mesh arrays, solution and information arrays (keep the TIDS in IVEM!) (e.g. see vemp02exm10) and set STEP=2 to indicate a restart. vemdis need not be recalled.
(5)=NIVEM, output, local
Used length of IVEM.
(6)=NRVEM, output, local
Used length of RVEM.
(7)=NLVEM, output, local
Used length of LVEM.
(8)=SPACE, output, local
Pointer to available work space in RBIG.
(9)=LSPACE, output, local
Length of available work space in RBIG. If the T-integration will be continued after a return of vemp02 with STEP=1, only the elements RBIG(SPACE), RBIG(SPACE+1), ..., RBIG(SPACE+LSPACE-1) in RBIG may be changed. Especially this storage is only available as work space for the postprocessing of the solution and error indicator.
(10), input, local
Unit for paging.
(11), input, local
Unit for paging.
(12), input, local
Unit for paging. If it is necessary, vemp02 writes parts (pages) of RBIG/IBIG to external data sets. For that purpose vemp02 needs three temporary files on units IVEM(10), IVEM(11) and IVEM(12). They are only used if the storage for RBIG/IBIG is too small. The needed lengths of these files cannot be computed in advance because they depend on the given mesh and the functional equation. Every process has to get its own data set, otherwise the results will be chaotic. If the data sets are allocated on different discs, the i/o-time will be reduced, since the i/o is done in parallel.
(40)=LOUT, input, local
Unit number of the standard output file, normally 6.
(41)=OUTCNT, input, local
Output control flag.
 0 only error messages are printed. >0 a protocol and every OUTCNT-th iteration step in lsolpp are printed.
(45)=MSPACK, input, global
Maximal number of stripes to pack the global matrix, normally 100. The packing of the global matrix is divided into several steps (called stripes). Before the packing starts, the needed number of stripes is estimated. If this number is greater than MSPACK, the computation will be stopped. You have to give more storage for RBIG/IBIG or to increase MSPACK. In general a problem needing more than 100 stripes is too large for the given storage, or else the mesh is numbered badly.
(46)=PCLASS, input, local
Packing limit, normally 0. The global matrix is stored in packed form into RBIG/IBIG. The needed storage can be controlled by PCLASS.
 0 lsolpp will need minimal CPU time. The needed storage is large. 1 compromise of needed storage and CPU time for lsolpp. 2 The storage for the global matrix will be minimal. lsolpp will need much CPU time.
(51)=ORDER, input, global
Order of the integration formulas for the computation of the element matrices (0<ORDER<19). ORDER gives the maximal degree of the polynomials which will be integrated exactly. You should select ORDER greater than the square of the order of the used proposal functions.
(60)=MAXIT, input, global
Maximal number of Newton-Raphson steps. If MAXIT=0, no limit for the number of iterations is set.
(70)=MS, input, global
Method selection in lsolpp.
(71)=MSPREC, input, global
Normalization method in lsolpp.
(72)=ITMAX, input, global
Permitted maximal number of matrix-vector multiplications per Newton-Raphson step in lsolpp.
(73)=MUNIT, input, global
If MUNIT is greater than 20 and less than 100 the global matrix of the last LINSOL call is written to unit MUNIT, see fBlsolpp.
(200)=NPROC, input, global
Number of processes, see combgn.
(201)=MYPROC, input, local
Logical process id number, see combgn.
(202)=NMSG, input/output, global
Message counter. The difference of the input and the output values gives the number of communications during the vemp02 call.
(204)=TIDS(1), input, global
Begin of the list TIDS which defines the mapping of the logical process ids to the physical process ids. See combgn.
(MESH), input, local
Start of mesh informations, see mesh.
LRVEM integer, scalar, input, local
Length of the real information vector, LRVEM>=40+ 14*NK+ 8*LM, and if ERREST is set, LRVEM>=40 +14*NK+ 15*LM.
RVEM double precision, array: RVEM(LRVEM), input/output, local/global
Real information vector.
(1)=JOBEND, output, local
If the real function SECOND in the VECFEM library is greater than JOBEND on any processor, vemp02 stops the calculation. You can save the mesh arrays, the solution vector and the information array for a restart (see STEP). If JOBEND is equal to zero, no limit for the run time is set.
(2)=EPS, output, local
Smallest positive number with 1.+EPS>1.
(3)=EPSEST, input, global
Desired accuracy for the solution of the linear systems to compute the error indicator, e.g. 1.D-2.
(10)=TOL, input, global
Desired accuracy for the relative error of the solution, e.g. 1.D-7. The step size and order will be selected to keep the estimated error lower than TOL.
(11)=T0, input/output, global
At the first call, T0 specifies the initial time at which the initial solution U0 is given. At the output it is set to the current time mark. So the arrays U and EEST always contain the solution and its estimated error at time RVEM(11).
(12)=TEND, input, global
Integration in T-direction ends if the current time step is greater than TEND.
(13)=H, input, global
The current step size. At the first call a start step size has to be given. It should not be selected too large to avoid failure of the first T-step.
(14)=HMIN, input, global
Minimal step size in T-direction. If the current step size is equal to HMIN, the error is accepted even if it is too large. Setting HMIN to a sufficiently small positive value avoids decrease of the current step size H down to zero.
(15)=HMAX, input, global
Maximal step size in T-direction. In rare cases, for example when the solution is very smooth and almost constant, but also shows oscillations in short intervals, it may be necessary to choose HMAX according to the problem. In general, one sets HMAX = TEND - T0.
LLVEM integer, scalar, input, local
Length of the logical information vector, LLVEM>=20+2*NK+ 5*NGROUP*(NK*NK+ NK).
LVEM logical, array: LVEM(LLVEM), input/output, local/global
Logical information vector.
(1)=LSYM, input, global
LSYM=true indicates a symmetrical Frechet derivative of F with respect of U and UT, see usrfu.
(4)=SMLLCR, input, global
If SMLLCR=true, a Newton-Raphson correction which is too small will be accepted, in the other case the solution processes is stopped, normally false. If the problem is very ill-posed a small Newton-Raphson correction is not an indicator for a good solution, so SMLLCR=true should only be set, if you are sure that your problem is well-posed or you solve a test problem.
(6)=ERRSTP, input, global
If ERRSTP=true, the estimation of the discretization error is considered in the stopping criterion of the Newton-Raphson iteration and the step size control, normally true.
(7)=ERREST, input, global
If ERREST=true, the global error estimation is computed, else EEST is undefined, normally true.
(8)=USESNI, input, global
If USESNI=true, the simplified Newton-Raphson method may be used, normally true. The use of the simplified Newton-Raphson method will reduce the CPU time, since the mounting of a new global matrix is saved, but it might be risky in the case of ill-posed problems.
(9)=NOSMTH, input, global
NOSMTH=true indicates that lsolpp returns the smoothed solution, normally false. For some applications the use of the non smoothed solution can improve the convergency of the Newton-Raphson iteration.
(10)=LMVM, input, global
If LMVM=true, the Newton-Raphson iteration is continued even if lsolpp reaches the maximal number of matrix-vector multiplications, normally true.
(11)=NORMMA, input, global
If NORMMA=true, the consistency order, the step size in the time direction and the Newton-Raphson iteration are controlled by the maximum error over all components, else they are controlled by the error of each individual component, normally false.
(15)=ALLP, input, global
If ALLP=true, the consistency order in the time direction is controlled in the range of 1 to p+1, else in the range of p-1 to p+1, where p is the current order, normally false.
(16)=INTERP, input, global
If INTERP=true, the solution is interpolated at the given mark T and is returned to the calling program, else the solution is given at the current time step if it is greater than T (T is set to the current time step), normally true.
LNEK integer, scalar, input, local
Length of the element array.
NEK integer, array: NEK(LNEK), input, local
Array of the elements, see mesh.
LRPARM integer, scalar, input, local
Length of the real parameter array.
RPARM double precision, array: RPARM(LRPARM), input, local
Real parameter array, see mesh.
LIPARM integer, scalar, input, local
Length of the integer parameter array.
IPARM integer, array: IPARM(LIPARM), input, local
Integer parameter array, see mesh.
LDNOD integer, scalar, input, local
Length of the array of the Dirichlet nodes.
DNOD integer, array: DNOD(LDNOD), input, local
Array of the Dirichlet nodes, see mesh.
LRDPRM integer, scalar, input, local
Length of the real Dirichlet parameter array.
RDPARM double precision, array: RDPARM(LRDPRM), input, local
Array of the real Dirichlet parameters, see mesh.
LIDPRM integer, scalar, input, local
Length of the integer Dirichlet parameter array.
IDPARM integer, array: IDPARM(LIDPRM), input, local
Array of the integer Dirichlet parameters, see mesh.
LNODN integer, scalar, input, local
Length of the array of the id numbers of the geometrical nodes.
NODNUM integer, array: NODNUM(LNODN), input, local
Array of the id numbers of the geometrical nodes, see mesh.
LNOD integer, scalar, input, local
Length of the array of the coordinates of the geometrical nodes.
NOD double precision, array: NOD(LNOD), input, local
Array of the coordinates of the geometrical nodes, see mesh.
LNOPRM integer, scalar, input, local
Length of the array of the node parameters.
NOPARM double precision, array: NOPARM(LNOPRM), input, local
Array of the node parameters, see mesh.
LBIG integer, scalar, input, local
Length of the real work array. It is impossible to compute the needed length for LBIG before the first vemp02 run. It depends on the given mesh and the functional equation. The needed length of LBIG is controlled by the parameters MSPACK and PCLASS. It should be as large as possible.
RBIG double precision, array: RBIG(LBIG), work array, local
Real work array. Between two calls of vemp02 to continue the T-integration, only the elements RBIG(SPACE), RBIG(SPACE+1), ..., RBIG(SPACE+LSPACE-1) in RBIG may be changed.
IBIG integer, array: IBIG(*), work array, local
Integer work array, RBIG and IBIG have to be defined by the EQUIVALENCE statement. Between two calls of vemp02 to continue the T-integration, only the elements RBIG((SPACE-1)*2+1), RBIG((SPACE-1)*2+2), ..., RBIG((SPACE-1)*2+LSPACE*2) in RBIG may be changed (for single precision versions (e.g. on Cray coamputers) replace '*2' by '*1').
If MASKL(COMPV,COMPU,G)=true, the coefficient of the COMPV-th component of the test function in linear form F depends on the COMPU-th component of the solution or its derivative with respect to time at the elements in the group G, see usrfu.
If MASKF(COMPV,G)=true, the COMPV-th component of the test function gives a contribution to the linear form F over the elements in group G, see userf. If you select the masks in an optimal manner, the computation will use the CPU and storage resources optimally. If you are uncertain about the correct settings, you can set the masks equal to true or call vemfre to check your entries.
USERB external, local
Name of the subroutine in which the Dirichlet conditions are described, see userb.
USRFUT external, local
Name of the subroutine in which the Frechet derivative of the linear form F with respect to UT is described, see usrfu.
USRFU external, local
Name of the subroutine in which the Frechet derivative of the linear form F with respect to U is described, see usrfu.
USERF external, local
Name of the subroutine in which the coefficients of the linear forms F are described, see userf.
VEM50X external, global
Name of the subroutine in which the element matrices are computed. The general case is VEM500. Special versions for structural analysis are not yet available.
VEM60X external, global
Name of the subroutine in which the storage of VEM50X is specified. The general case is VEM630.

See vemexamples.

METHOD

The functional equation [1]-[3] is discretized by the finite element method. The finite element mesh is defined by the user. The initial value problem is integrated by the finite difference method. The solution of the system of nonlinear equations which has to be solved in every time step T is an approximation of the solution of [1]-[3] at T.

Spatial Discretization

In every element the solution is replaced by a polynomial which interpolates the solution at the global nodes of the element. The parametric representation is the polynomial interpolation of the assigned geometrical nodes.

Time Discretization

From earlier time steps the solution at the current time is computed by a difference formula of the order of consistency P and step size H. P and H are controlled by an estimation of the error on the level of the equation so that the error of the solution is lower than the given tolerance TOL. If the current time reaches the given time mark T, the integration stops to save the solution at time T.

Solution at a Time Step

In every time step, the discretizations in space and time direction produce a system of nonlinear equations. It is solved by the Newton method. The iteration stops and the solution is accepted if the space discretization error is reached or if it converges nearly quadratically and the correction of the next iteration will be smaller than TOL. It may be necessary to use underrelaxation. For good convergence the simplified Newton method can be used.

Solution of a Newton Step

Systems of linear equations have to be solved which are in general very large and extremely sparse. The linear equations solver lsolpp in vemp02 uses iterative methods.

Error Estimation

The discretization error in space direction is estimated by inserting other test functions into the functional equation as they are used for the computation of the solution. The functions are generated by halving the mesh size and the order. The discretization error in time direction is estimated by the difference of the derivative of the interpolation polynomials of the current and of the next higher order. To compute the error function EEST the global matrix of the last Newton step is used.

Accuracy

The accuracy is determined by the error tolerance TOL which controls the error of the solution of the discretized functional equation. Additionally the accuracy of the numerical solution depends on the mesh width and the order of the proposal functions, which is controlled by the error estimation, the order of the geometrical approximation and the used order of integration formulas, which is not considered in the estimation.

RESTRICTIONS

1. The existence and uniqueness of the solution of the problem have to be ensured.
2. lsolpp uses iterative methods. In some cases problems with the convergence can be avoided if the coefficients of the linear form are ordered in a way that the derivatives of the COMPV-th component of the solution occur in the coefficients of the derivatives of the COMPV-th component from the test functions and/or the COMPV-th component of the solution occurs in the coefficients of the COMPV-th component from the test functions.
3. The Newton-Raphson iteration or the lsolpp iteration may be divergent. In general this occurs if the coefficients for the derivatives of the test functions get a dominant term of the solution relative to terms of the derivative of the solution or the coefficients for the test functions get a dominant term of the derivative of the solution relative to terms of the solution. If it is possible, scale the coefficients in the linear form so that they are in the same order of magnitude. In case of divergence you should check the Frechet derivatives and the mesh. Sometimes an increase of the integration order will produce convergence.
4. An initial solution which equals zero may cause problems during the iteration. In the beginning, the computation of the tolerance on the level of equation may be unsafe because of the small value of the norm of the solution. In most cases the solution and the error estimation become more accurate when more integration steps have been executed.
5. If the error estimation is active, the order of the used proposal functions for a component must be greater than one, if the derivative of this component of the test function or the solution is used in the functional equation. In the other case, order one is sufficient.

REFERENCES

[FAQ], [THEOMAN], [DATAMAN], [DATAMAN2], [LINSOL], [P_MPI],