(A work in progress.)
Copyright (C) 2001
by Zachary Thayer Smith.
All rights reserved.
Document begun 18 Sept 01.
Last updated 02 Oct 01.
PrefaceOnce upon a time, GNU UnRTF was a program that I wrote called "rtf2htm". This seemed too generic a name, since many free programs of varying quality exist with that name. So I finally settled on a new name, UnRTF. This name reflects a desire to convert away from the RTF format, to various other formats. When it came time to include the program into the GNU software suite, the program name was changed to GNU UnRTF. This document is also provided AS-IS and without any warranty of any kind. The user shall utilize the program and/or this document at his or her own risk.
I am the primary engineer behind UnRTF, however I have received comments and bug reports from various people. These contributors are identified in the source code, when they desired to be mentioned.
UnRTF, a command-line program to convert RTF documents to other formats. Copyright (C) 2000,2001 Zachary Thayer Smith This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA The author is reachable by electronic mail at firstname.lastname@example.org.
IntroductionUnRTF is a program to convert RTF (Rich Text) documents to other formats. At present, conversion to HTML is the most complete. I am presently adding LaTeX, plain text, text with VT100 codes, and PostScript conversion. I will later add my own format, WPML (word processor markup language), to that list; that format is described at http://www.geocities.com/tuorfa/wpml.html.
Converting to HTMLThe program supports many features of the current RTF standard when converting to HTML.
Character SetsRTF supports at least four character sets, probably more. These four are: ANSI, Macintosh(TM), PC codepage 437, and PC codepage 850. In order to be able to read each of these, a converter can use one of two strategies: either have conversion tables from each of these four to each potential output format, or convert from each of these four to an intermediate, and then have one conversion table from the intermediate to each output format. The first approach requires 2n tables, whereas the second requires 4+n tables where n is the number of output formats. Obviously the second approach is better, but implementing it requires research to find out what the maximal set of characters is. I haven't gotten around to that, so for the time being, UnRTF uses the first approach. In addition, existing open source software may already be available to perform such conversions based on a larger library of character sets. If so, it would be wiser to utilize an existing system such as that.
Converting to LaTeXLaTeX is a tricky format to convert to, for several reasons. It's a very specialized system of macros. One could argue that it would be easier to convert to raw TeX than bother with the idiosyncrices of LaTeX. It has its own character set and fonts. It has some commands which are unstable, such as \underline. Some commonplace items are not for use outside of equations, e.g. superscripting. I've made an initial effort at getting the converter to work, with improvements later.
Character SetsUnder construction.
Converting to PostScriptConverting to PostScript is a tricky because it is not actually a document format. PostScript is in fact a stack-based programming language that is executed in the printer. It lacks such concepts are paragraphs and tables or anything document-related really, but it does have drawing primitives, mechanisms for accessing built-in fonts, and can print pages. Still, at first it would that conversion to this format is a very large obstacle. Actually, PostScript is a robust and enjoyable programming language and I am enjoying the task of writing the PostScript code. Presently my text renderer is limited, since it is quite new. I will be improving it soon.
Character SetsUnder construction.
Text BlocksParagraph alignment and tables are not yet supported for PostScript output.
Extra FeaturesNone yet.
Converting to Plain TextUnder construction.
Converting to Text with VT100 control codesUnder construction.
Converting to WPMLUnder construction.
Features Not Yet SupportedAs development continues, I will try to add support for other features. Some that I know are not covered but that I would like to address include:
Using UnRTFPlease refer to the manual page (unrtf.1).
CompilationPlease see the README file.
Theory of OperationThis program essentially reads the entire RTF file into memory and works on it. Because of this, it may require that you run the program on a computer that has virtual memory enabled. With smaller input files it should be possible to use the program under DOS, so long as it is compiled with the DOS version of GCC, called DJGPP.
The program operates by dealing with each RTF word in order, and interpreting those which are commands. Some RTF command words have parameters in a subtree. The command \info is an example. The program has separate routines to handle such cases. In fact, most commands have separate functions which handle their execution.
When the program was called rtf2htm (up through version 0.17 or so), the output mechanism was based on the production of HTML exclusively. This has now changed, and the abstraction of an OutputPersonality is used allow other output formats. Each format has its own C file, in which all the basic strings for producing text are stored, as well as character conversion tables. Note, RTF itself allows several character sets to be used, so for each output personality there are that many conversion tables.
One or two things that UnRTF does are fairly tricky, such as the conversion of tabular data. RTF encodes tables in an odd way compared to HTML or LaTeX, so the code is accordingly complicated. Suffice it to say that it works, so don't touch it. Do note, PostScript does not have concept of a table, since it is not a document format but a programming language. I will eventually get tables working under PS anyway, by porting my table rendering code over from my HTML viewer, Beest.
I have implemented at least three optimizations to reduce the amount of memory required by the program and the time used for the conversion.